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Thursday, April 24, 2008

Diversified Indian Economy - Different Sectors of economy of India

A lot have changed in indian economy from the time since it got independence from the colonial rule in 1947. earlier much of the economic activities were controlled by the government itself and no major reforms were introduced in first 45 years of independence. However changes were made in early 90's under the government of Rajiv Gandhi and followed by Late PV narsimha Rao's Finance Minister Manmohan Singh(now Prime minister of India). This was time when liberalisation policies were introduced in indian economy and indian markets were opened for the foreign MNC's. since then there is no looking back for indian economy.

India's economy is diverse, encompassing agriculture, handicrafts, textile, manufacturing, and a multitude of services. Although two-thirds of the Indian workforce still earn their livelihood directly or indirectly through agriculture, services are a growing sector and play an increasingly important role of India's economy.

The advent of the digital age, and the large number of young and educated populace fluent in English, is gradually transforming India as an important 'back office' destination for global outsourcing of customer services and technical support. India is a major exporter of highly-skilled workers in software and financial services, and software engineering. Other sectors like manufacturing, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, nanotechnology, telecommunication, shipbuilding, aviation , tourism and retailing are showing strong potentials with higher growth rates.

However, since the early 1990s, India has gradually opened up its markets through economic reforms by reducing government controls on foreign trade and investment. The privatisation of publicly owned industries and the opening up of certain sectors to private and foreign interests has proceeded slowly amid political debate.

India faces a fast-growing population and the challenge of reducing economic and social inequality. Poverty remains a serious problem, although it has declined significantly since independence.